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Prostate Cancer

The prostate is one of the organs that make up the male reproductive system. Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the prostate gland. The prostate gland produces the fluid in which the sperm cells are located during ejaculation. This fluid protects the sperm cells so that they can fertilize the egg cell. The prostate is located just behind the bladder and in front of the rectum. The urethra, which allows urine and ejaculate to be expelled from the body, passes through the middle of the prostate.

Prostate cancer progresses very slowly and does not go beyond the prostate gland for many years. Therefore, it is very difficult to detect. It is also a very common type of cancer in men. Approximately one in every 9 men develops prostate cancer. It is the second most common type of cancer in men after skin cancer. Prostate cancer can be successfully treated. On the other hand, some patients do not need treatment. However, prostate cancer is a deadly type of cancer.

Prostate cancer's exact cause is still unknown. However, it is believed that genetic factors significantly contribute to prostate cancer. Prostate cancer survivors have a significantly higher probability of getting diagnosed than healthy individuals do. Prostate cancer risk may also be somewhat elevated by inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer genes or other genes.

Types of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer types vary according to tumor cells. However, almost all species cause the same symptoms. Prostate cancer rarely causes symptoms in its early stages. With the progression of cancer, complaints that occur with symptoms also increase. The most common symptoms include frequent urination, especially at night, weakening of the urine flow, pain or pain during urination, painful erection, erectile dysfunction, blood in the ejaculate or urine, low back pain, hip pain, chest pain, legs or pain in the legs. Loss of feeling in the feet is one of the main prostate cancer symptoms.

Prostate problems do not always indicate prostate cancer. However, not every mass that occurs in the prostate is cancerous. Some other diseases can also cause symptoms of prostate cancer. Benign enlargement of the prostate or inflammation of the prostate causes similar symptoms.

Almost all prostate cancers are of the adenocarcinoma type. This type of cancer develops in the cells of the prostate gland and spreads to other parts of the body. A different type of cancer occurs very rarely in the prostate. Small cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor and sarcoma are other types of cancer that can occur in the prostate gland.

Prostate Cancer Treatment

Because the cancer progresses very slowly and does not spread, some people do not need prostate cancer treatment. However, the chance of cure in prostate cancer is quite high. Patients with cancer who do not require treatment and do not show any symptoms are followed up regularly. In older people, testing is done at wider intervals, and treatment is usually directed at managing symptoms.

Another treatment method in prostate cancer is brachytherapy. In this method, radioactive seeds are placed inside the prostate. In this way, it is ensured that the surrounding tissues are not affected by cancer. With radiation therapy, high-intensity X-rays are sent to the area where the tumor is located. In cases where the cancer has spread beyond the prostate, systemic therapies are used. These therapies include chemotherapy, androgen deprivation, hormone therapy, and immunotherapy.

Finally, there is the prostatectomy operation. With this surgery, the prostate gland is removed. Prostatectomy can be performed laparoscopically or robotically. Since these methods are made with much smaller incisions, they are considered as minimally invasive methods. Prostatectomy is only effective if the cancer has not spread to another area. In cases where the cancer has spread, chemotherapy can be combined with prostatectomy.

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