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The bladder is a muscular sac located in the inguinal area, above and behind the pubic bone. When the bladder is totally empty, it is approximately the size of a pear.

The kidneys produce urine, which is transported to the bladder via the urinary tract. Normal bladder capacity ranges between 400 and 600 milliliters. During urination, the bladder's muscles contract to expel urine from the bladder, which is then expelled through the urethra.


The procedure, also known as TURBT, is performed to identify the presence of bladder cancer. Transurethral resection, or TUR for short, is also used to determine whether bladder cancer has progressed to the bladder wall in patients. In the transurethral resection technique, a resectoscope cystoscope is placed into the bladder after being passed through the urethra. Here, a tissue sample is collected and submitted to pathology.

Radical Cystectomy

In the case of bladder cancer or other cancers that have spread to the bladder, congenital diseases of the urinary system, or neurological or inflammatory problems affecting the urinary system, radical cystectomy is one of the treatment options. In an open, laparoscopic, or robotic radical cystectomy, the entire bladder or lymph nodes surrounding the bladder are removed.

Partial Cystectomy

In essence, partial cystectomy is identical to radical cystectomy. The main difference is that with radical cystectomy, the entire bladder is removed. Only the region containing the tumor is removed, leaving the majority of the bladder intact. It is preferred when the bladder continues to function well and the bladder tumor is between 1 and 2 centimeters in size.

Bladder Botox

People with overactive bladder disease awaken frequently, especially at night, to use the restroom. As a result of nighttime bathroom trips causing sleeplessness, problems such as sadness and daytime drowsiness develop. Botox can currently be applied to the bladder to lessen its activity. Around 10 to 12 days following the injection, the frequency of urination considerably decreases. Approximately one year is required for its effectiveness.

Endoscopic Vesicoureteral Reflux Treatment

The backflow of urine into the ureteral tubes or kidney called vesicoureteral reflux. Typically, this issue is congenital. It is particularly prevalent in newborns and toddlers. In moderate situations, there may be no need for treatment. In severe circumstances, the condition may be treated with medication or surgery. The operation can be performed open, laparoscopically, or robotically.

Cystocele Treatment

Cystocele prolapse affects several individuals today. The bladder is not removed during surgery to correct a cystocele. Instead, it is returned to its previous location. In this method, mesh, an artificial tissue, is typically used. As pelvic connective tissues, the mesh provides support for the bladder.


Cystoscopy is one of the techniques used to detect and treat urinary tract disorders. Control might extend from the urethra to the interior portion of the bladder.

Vesicovaginal Fistula Repair

The development of an abnormal duct between the bladder and the vagina. This passageway is known as a fistula. Vesicovaginal fistula repair can be performed laparoscopically or robotically.

Rectovaginal Fistula Repair

A rectovaginal fistula is an abnormal hole at the end of the large intestine between the rectum and the vagina. This hole redirects digestive contents to the vaginal entrance rather than the rectum. Typically, rectovaginal fistula repair procedures are conducted via the vagina, rectum, or perineum. In this surgery, the aberrant aperture is often closed with the patient's own tissue.

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