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The urethra is a very thin tube composed of fibromuscular tissue. It begins at the lower opening of the bladder and goes through nearly the whole urogenital system to the urethra. In men, the urethra is also connected to the semen duct, allowing sperm to exit the body. A sphincter muscle can be found in the upper urethra. Thus, the urine stays in the bladder and there is no leaking.

The urethra is longer in men than in women due to the penis. While the average length of the urethra in women is 4 centimeters, it can reach 20 centimeters in men. When the bladder's receptors signal the brain that the bladder is full, the sphincter relaxes, enabling urine to flow into the urethra. This is usually an intentional process. However, unconscious urination can occur if the bladder is overfilled. This is believed to be urinary incontinence.

Internal Uretrotomy

Internal urethrotomy or urethrotomy is one of the methods used to treat stenosis of the internal urinary system. A tiny tube equipped with a camera and light source is advanced into the urinary opening and to the site of the stenosis. When the constricted section enters the field of view, the cold knife at the end of the tube is used to cut this section. In this way, the constriction is eliminated.

Under general or spinal anesthesia, internal urethrotomy is performed. Therefore, patients have no discomfort throughout surgery. The duration of the procedure is between 20 minutes to one hour. Following the completion of the procedure, it is inserted after urinating. It is sufficient for this probe to remain for 3 days. For two weeks after surgery, it is advised that patients avoid from physically demanding sports and practice sexual abstinence.


Urethral stricture is one of the conditions that can be treated by urethroplasty. In this method, the portion where the constriction occurs is removed. The remaining two channels' ends are reconnected. The urethra is thereby made healthy. In urethroplasty procedures, the future risk of disease recurrence is reduced. When the stenosis arises over a short distance, urethroplasty surgery is performed.

When the stenosis persists for an extended period of time, augmentation urethroplasty is performed instead of urethroplasty. A small piece of tissue from the inside of the patient's cheek or lip is patched to the area with canal constriction.


Urethral stricture is characterized by slow urination, cessation, painful urination, and frequently infection. With urethrotomy, the constriction in the urethra is eliminated. The urethrotomy procedure is carried out under either general or spinal anesthesia. Typically, the entire procedure takes less than thirty minutes. With the cytoscope put via the urethra, the portion of the urethra containing the stricture is located.

Afterward, this region is magnified using a cytoscope. In some instances, this region is also examined using a cytoscope to determine whether there is an issue with the bladder. The day following urethrotomy surgery, patients are usually discharged. Rest is essential throughout the first few days. Patients should avoid exercises that strain the body for an extended period of time.


Transobturator tape, or TOT for short, is one of the primary treatment options for stress urine incontinence in young individuals. In the TOT procedure, the urethra is suspended using a mesh. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. Typically, a catheter can be inserted following surgery. Eventually, it may be necessary to remove this catheter.

The mesh support inserted during the TOT treatment is permanent and integrates with the body. One of the most important characteristics of this structure is that it will not loosen and sag over time. Approximately one week after surgery, there is no risk in allowing patients to resume their normal activities. TOT is a highly effective strategy and is therefore usually chosen.

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