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Two oval-shaped organs in the male reproductive system are the testicles. It resides in a sac known as the scrotum. This sac is placed between the legs in the groin region. The anatomy of the testicles is essential for the generation, storage, and utilization of sperm cells after ejaculation. Additionally, the testicles secrete the hormone testosterone. This hormone regulates male reproductive and sexual satisfaction. It is also involved in the growth of bone and muscle.

The testicles' major function is the creation and preservation of sperm cells. In addition, it contributes to the creation of the male hormones testosterone and androgen. In the testis, there are semen channels where sperm cells are created, rete testis where sperm cells are maintained in a fluid containing Sertoli cells, and sending channels that transmit sperm between the rete testis and epididymis. The testicles are composed of the components tunica vasculosa, tunica albuginea, and tunica vaginalis, which are positioned surrounding the testis.

Microsurgical Varicocelectomy

Varicocele is caused by the growth of veins within the testicles. Varicocele can cause infertility, testicular discomfort, and issues with testosterone production in men. Varicocele is one of the leading reasons of male infertility. Microsurgical varicocelectomy is the most successful method for the treatment of varicocele.

In microsurgical varicocelectomy, malformed veins are accessible by an inguinal incision measuring 1 to 2 centimeters. As it is a microsurgical procedure, no harm is done to the region's arteries or lymphatic vessels while the troublesome veins are treated. In microsurgical varicocelectomy procedures, the troublesome vein must be eliminated entirely. Otherwise, the danger of varicocele recurrence is very high.


Orchiopexy is a surgical procedure in which the cryptorchid, or testicle that has not descended into the scrotum, is transferred to the testis and its permanency is ensured. However, orchiopexy may also be preferred in cases with testicular torsion. This strategy has a very high probability of success. In childhood, undescended testis should be treated. Otherwise, the future risk of infertility or testicular cancer will grow substantially.

During orchiopexy, an incision is made next to the testicle and the testicle is moved to its proper location. After the testis has been inserted into the scrotum, it is examined. Patients are typically discharged the day following orchiopexy surgery. However, this may differ amongst patients.


Orchiectomy is a surgical procedure that removes one or both testicles. Typically, orchiectomy is performed for the treatment or prevention of testicular cancer, prostate cancer, or male breast cancer. In the event of severe injury to the testicles as a consequence of physical trauma, it may be required to perform orchiectomy surgery. Rarely is orchiectomy performed on undescended testicles.

Through an incision made in the groin or scrotum, orchiectomy surgery can be performed. Bilateral orchiectomy refers to the removal of a single testis, uniliteral orchiectomy refers to the removal of two testicles, and radical inguinal orchiectomy refers to the removal of both testicles plus the sperm cord.

Testicular Implants

A prosthesis is an artificial component used to replace a body part. Arm or foot prostheses are the first types of prostheses that come to mind, but there are numerous other forms. Testicular implants can be utilized in males if they were born without a testicle or if their testicle was removed due to discomfort. A testicular prosthesis is inserted into the scrotum in place of the testis. These prostheses provide just a visual role and assist in overcoming psychological issues.


Hydrocelectomy is the preferred method of hydrocele excision or repair. Hydrocele is a bag containing fluid that surrounds the testicles. It causes scrotum enlargement. In cases of bilateral hydrocele, the treatment is known as bilateral hydrocelectomy.

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